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Summary

A Psychology Journal: Psychological Testing and Measurement speaks in-depth of test reliability and validity. As one may already know reliability and validity are major topics of concern within the broader field. The advent of reliability and validity can pertain to surveys, tests, as well as its measures. Learn the origins of testing as well as the present-day testing formats. When we think of behavior what word first comes to mind? That’s right psychology, the study of behavior. Two such means in which behavior can occur is through both social and environmental influences. Environmental influences can include reaching for an umbrella on a rainy day, and social influences may include playing sports because other peers are engaging in such activity. These social and environmental influences are not concrete, so too is behavior unpredictable.

The unpredictability of behavior in itself may be enough reason to investigate the social and environmental influences on behavior. When viewing behavior as instinctual this is to say complex behavior patterns possess a genetic determinant. Activities the result of instinctive behavior include migration, hibernation, and mating behavior. This instinctive explanation of behavior is also termed species-specific behavior. This type of behavior refers to not only complex behavior but also unlearned and unmodified behavior patterns of a certain species under certain circumstances. Instinctual behavior though thorough only explains one half of the nature versus nurture dichotomy - the never ending struggle between associationism (empiricism) and rationalism. In existence are many forms of experiential or behavioral learning such as Thorndike’s instrumental conditioning, Skinner’s operant conditioning, and Pavlov’s classical conditioning.

©2014 Steven G Carley (P)2014 Steven G Carley

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