From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI's secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. This groundbreaking work, based on seven years of research in the Vatican and Fascist archives, including reports from Mussolini's spies inside the highest levels of the Church, will forever change our understanding of the Vatican's role in the rise of Fascism in Europe.
The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of 20th-century history. In most respects, they could not have been more different. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. Yet Pius XI and "Il Duce" had many things in common. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. Both were prone to sudden fits of temper and were fiercely protective of the prerogatives of their office. ("We have many interests to protect," the Pope declared, soon after Mussolini seized control of the government in 1922.) Each relied on the other to consolidate his power and achieve his political goals.
In a challenge to the conventional history of this period, in which a heroic Church does battle with the Fascist regime, Kertzer shows how Pius XI played a crucial role in making Mussolini's dictatorship possible and keeping him in power. In exchange for Vatican support, Mussolini restored many of the privileges the Church had lost and gave in to the pope's demands that the police enforce Catholic morality. Yet in the last years of his life - as the Italian dictator grew ever closer to Hitler - the pontiff's faith in this treacherous bargain started to waver. With his health failing, he began to lash out at the Duce and threatened to denounce Mussolini's anti-Semitic racial laws before it was too late. Horrified by the threat to the Church-Fascist alliance, the Vatican's inner circle, including the future Pope Pius XII, struggled to restrain the headstrong pope from destroying a partnership that had served both the Church and the dictator for many years.
The Pope and Mussolini brims with memorable portraits of the men who helped enable the reign of Fascism in Italy: Father Pietro Tacchi Venturi, Pius's personal emissary to the dictator, a wily anti-Semite known as Mussolini's Rasputin; Victor Emmanuel III, the king of Italy, an object of widespread derision who lacked the stature - literally and figuratively - to stand up to the domineering Duce; and Cardinal Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli, whose political skills and ambition made him Mussolini's most powerful ally inside the Vatican, and positioned him to succeed the pontiff as the controversial Pius XII, whose actions during World War II would be subject for debate for decades to come.
With the recent opening of the Vatican archives covering Pius XI's papacy, the full story of the Pope's complex relationship with his Fascist partner can finally be told. Vivid, dramatic, with surprises at every turn, The Pope and Mussolini is history writ large and with the lightning hand of truth.
©2014 David I. Kertzer (P)2014 Random House Audio
"David Kertzer has an eye for a story, an ear for the right word, and an instinct for human tragedy. They all come together in The Pope and Mussolini to document, with meticulous scholarship and novelistic flair, the complicity between Pius XI and the Fascist leader in creating an unholy alliance between the Vatican and a totalitarian government rooted in corruption and brutality. This is a sophisticated blockbuster." (Joseph J. Ellis, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Revolutionary Summer)
"A capstone on David Kertzer's already crucial work, The Pope and Mussolini carefully and eloquently advances the painful but necessary truth of Vatican failure to meet its greatest moral test. This is history for the sake of justice." (James Carroll, National Book Award-winning author of Constantine's Sword)
"The Pope and Mussolini is a riveting story from start to finish, full of startling, documented detail, and nobody is better prepared to tell it than David Kertzer." (Jack Miles, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of God: A Biography)
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David Kertzer reminds the world that organized religion is only human. Religions are subject to the goodness and sins of human nature. Whether one believes in a Supreme Being or not, actions of organized religion are freighted with human error. Kertzer is only one of many who have exposed the perfidy of organized religion. His target, in “The Pope and Mussolini, is the Roman Catholic Church.
Cardinal Ratti becomes Pope Pius XI during the ascension of European Fascism and Nazism in the 1920s and 30s. Ratti is characterized as a pedantic, conservative, and sometimes bellicose Christian believer in, and defender of the Roman Catholic Church.
Pope Pius XI agrees to support the government of Benito Mussolini in 1929 in return for the creation of an independent Papal State in Rome. Mussolini agrees to pay the church approximately $100 million for formally confiscated church land. Pope Pius XI acquires for himself and future Popes the right of independent rule, religious interpretation, and Christian doctrinal dictatorship. In return Mussolini gains the support of the Roman Catholic Church, the dissolution of Catholic political parties, and a title as II Duce, “The Leader” of Italy. At the stroke of a pen, Mussolini becomes a hero of Italian Catholics (over 90% of the population) and the totalitarian leader of Italy.
Pius XI compromises his morals and paves the way for Pius XII, a closet Christian anti-Semite, who becomes a Hitler’ collaborator by tacitly endorsing the immoral belief of religious purity. Though not widely known at the time, Cardinal Pacelli acted as a “too clever” intermediary between the German and Italian governments to undermine the growing discontent of Pope Pius XI with Germany’s treatment of Christians and Jewish converts to Christianity. Pope Pius XI commissions a new Catholic encyclical to condemn German treatment of Catholic citizens but dies before publication. Pope Pius XII (Cardinal Pacelli) buries the last encyclical of his predecessor in the archives of the Vatican library.
"It is not narrated well - the delivery does not keep it as captivating as this book should be"
It is an incredible story that if narrated by the right person can be very captivating.
"Great factual review"
Gives new meaning to the phrase 'politics makes strange bedfellows '
Surprising how recent Catholic history has evolved
Well researched and written
Enjoyed tempo and reader
"A good listen"
Very very very good account of the relationships of Pope Pius XI and the future Pius XII with Benito Musillini and to a lesser degree, Adolph Hitler.
Pius XI originally was please to find a working partner in Il Duce as he saw the chance for the Vatican to grow in influence against Pius XI's two ideological enemies, the Protestant Movement and Communism. Additionally Pius XI did not believe in a representational type of government.
Where Pius XI began to have serious rifts with Musillini was over the newly passed anti-Semitic laws. Pius XI believed that christian compassion should extend to the Jews. Additionally, Pius XI also held different ideas when it came to baptized catholic jews.
The future Piux XII, the papal secretary of state, favored strong ties to Mussilini and by extension, Adolph Hitler. Upon XI's death, XII ordered the total ban on the yet unpublished XI's papal encyclical which was viewed as very unfavorable to Hitler and Musillini. Both XI and XII have "a lot of 'splanin to do." Pius XII always had a cloud of antisemitism hanging over his head and this book greatly adds to that belief
Buyer beware tho ..... Lots and lots of Italian names most of which are superfluous to the main story.
"A critical assessment, but fair"
After my husband and I watched the film, "Il papa nella tempesta," I wanted to read about the rise of anticlericalism in Italy and the role the Church played in the war. I couldn't have asked for a better book to answer many of my questions. (And it raised just as many new ones, which is what a good history lesson should do).
(1) "The Pope and the Dictator" introduces the dramatis personae, particularly Achille Ratti, who became Pius XI, and Mussolini, along with many Vaticanos. Kertzer renders a vivid picture of daily life in Italy at the time. This section ends with the signing of the Lateran Accords in 1929: "For Italy's Jews, (this) prompted nervousness and fear. Little more than half a century earlier, the demise of the Papal States had liberated them from the pope's ghettos. Now they were worried what the future might bring."
(2) "Enemies In Common," discusses just that, including the way Church and State regarded Jews, Protestants, Germany, and how each alternately strengthened and threatened the interests of the other.
(3) "Mussolini, Hitler, and the Jews" takes us into the papacy of Eugenio Pacelli, now Pius XII, and the darkest days of the war. (His papacy is still a hotly debated subject, and several works exist which give conflicting views. A rabbi has written a defense, and a British journalist has written an excoriation, just to name two of the books).
In all, Kertzer is quite critical of the Church, and rightly so. But there is enough blame and shame to go around during this monstrous time in European history.
I didn't finish the audio book because the narrator was so awful. I bought the print book, which is nice in that it is illustrated, heavily annotated, and has maps of Rome for those of us who are not intimately acquainted with the city's layout at the time.
Kertzer has a passion for Italy and for research, and his writing is excellent. I'd happily read another of his books.
"fascinating but complicated. listening was good."
struggled to finish as became tedious. more Vatican/catholic history than war history. However the narrator did sound as if interested in the read
"Fascinating History of Collaboration Between Popes and Fascism"
Shocking and well documented study of ways in which Popes and Mussolini used each other to advance their political objectives and feared to dispute Hitler and betrayed democracy and Jews. Only objection was use of flashbacks made it sometimes hard to follow when listening to narrative.
"Historically interesting, but dull."
The biography of the pope and Mussolini is full of facts about their lives, interactions, and their shockingly cruel treatment of Italians. Very quickly though, the facts become repetitive, and the story did not hold my interest. I would not recommend this book.
I selected this book because it won the Pulitzer Prize. It was better than I imagined. The author did a tremendous amount of research. He is excellent story teller. He discovered collaboration by some Catholic leaders that has been covered up.
Incredibly informative, book for understanding about how stagnant a society can be when arrogance and self righteousness prevails, lacking love, compassion and understanding. Also displays how the church has learned from the intolerable mistakes it made in assisting Mussolini in his ascension into a Fascist Rule.
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